× Auto Repair Pros Member Benefits TechHelp Knowledge Base Forums Resources My iATN Marketplace Chat Pricing About Us Join Industry Sponsors Video Members Only Repair Shops Auto Pro Careers Auto Pro Reviews
Join Now
International Automotive Technicians Network
Prev Professional Automotive Repair Technical Discussions for March 11, 2013
International Automotive Technicians' Network (iATN) - Members Only
(Also Available: All, Asian, Chrysler, European, Ford, GM.)
Vehicle Owners: If you are seeking an automotive repair professional to service your vehicle, visit the iATN Repair Shop Finder.

Open Help Requests for All Makes and Models
Help Request Answers
1996 Acura RL 3.5L No Start VIN: JH4KA9653T
This car was towed in to us for a no start, we have no injector pulse or spark fuel pump does run and it does crank. Customer explained that they misplaced there keys and used a different set and car would not start. Tow truck driver tried to start car with a ...
1999 BMW 323i 2.5L throttle valve system VIN: WBAAM3339X
Hi everyone I need a BMW's Tech knowledge, Couple days ago this 1999 325i bmw came in with the EML light on. I connected the scanner and pulled out this code 169 Throttle valve system, switch off and 100 ECU self test. So what I did was replaced the th...
2001 BMW 325i 2.5L airbag light VIN: WBAAV33471
hello BMW techs. got a 325xi in here with a airbag code 026 occupant sensor problem. checked all connections under seat (first removed all the trash). looking for any diagnostic information on this code or anything you have seen related to this code, alldata h...
2003 BMW 325i 2.5L MIL Lamp on VIN: WBAAZ33423
This SULEV M56 flags code 2761 every cold start. It puts the system on when cold and the Sec MAF goes to 4.2 volts and the upstream o2s go from 1.51v to 1.00v. Vacuum to sec air valve occurs instantly when the pump goes but we did remove the one way valve as s... Trouble codes: 2761 (secondary air issue)
2006 BMW X5 3.0i 3.0L Passenger seat sensor mat VIN: 5UXFA13586
Installed new sensor pad/cushion - Code 71 remained after repair. I plugged in the original sensor mat and the code clears. This happened once before on an X5 and I did not find the cure, but it was a salvage part installed. The question I have is: Does the NE...
2006 BMW 750Li 4.8L steering VIN: WBAHN83596
Vehicle came in with a concern that the steering got hard at high speeds and an unknown dash light came on. It has codes 5EF4: steering angle sensor/ control unit internal, 94E7: steering angle sensor / wiper contact, and 94E6: control unit fault. Using solus ...
2007 BMW 328i 3.0L Acc VIN: WBAWB33587
Customer complained that the heat was not hot enough on a several hundred mile drive. When the symptom occoured it was below freezing outside. It has since warmed to around 45 degrees around here and the customer says the heat has been OK. I checked it and con...
1994 Chevrolet S10 Blazer Tahoe 4.3L Electronic VIN: 1GNDT13W1R
Trans has plenty of power in reverse gear. Seems to only to have 3rd and 4th gear when selecting manualy. Starts off in 3rd all the time. We have done all the electical test in the flow charts and everything seems fine. As stated above we have replaced the TCC...
2004 Chevrolet Suburban 1500 LT 5.3L Engine VIN: 3GNFK16T94
Hi to All and thank you for your time reading, This Suburban came in to us for new CATS as emissions were nearly out of test. Both CATS replaced and now emissions are OK. Customer also asked us to look at the idle as from time to time it would occasionally '...
2005 Chevrolet Silverado 3500 6.6L Hesitation, MIL Lamp on VIN: 1GBJC33275
This Silverado wont go over 40km/hr Intermittantly. The mil is on.It does shift ok. Cleared codes and drives normal. Codes have repeated. Has anyone had a problem with these codes repeating lack of power thinking FICM hoping someone has repaired one similar an... Trouble codes: P0207, P0299, P2146
2006 Chevrolet Uplander LT 3.5L steering VIN: 1GNDX33L16
Replaced steering rack due to leak at rack. Otherwise everything was working normally. Installed reman rack and all was well for a few weeks. Vehicle was brought back because the steering wheel was hard to turn (no power assist) when going left (right turn was...
1990 Daihatsu Rocky SE 1.6L Hesitation, Cuts out, Misfire VIN: JD2FF3109L
Thanks in advance. Probably the last on of these on the road. Cust came in 4 months ago complaining of running poor/misfire at all times. Traced to oil/ash fouled spark plug cyl #2. Cust was made aware that engine will need repair to pass emissions (blowing sm...
1991 Dodge W150 S 5.2L Hesitation, Cuts out VIN: 1B7HM16Y6M
surge ,buck at @45 and 50 mph .like ignitions cut off for a sec. lacks power a lso when accelerating hard. replace pickup coil and cleaned map sensor port,repaired dtc 13.road test with fuel oressure gauge fuel pressure was good. .adjusted ign timing was off 3... Trouble codes: 13 (map baro fault)
2001 Dodge Ram 1500 ST 5.9L brakes VIN: 1B7HF16Z81
Ok sometimes I get lost on a simple problem. I'm overlooking something here. Truck came in with no brakes or weak brakes, Depending on how it felt. Replaced mc, frt rt caliper and most brake lines. Still can't get a hard pedal after bleeding. Tried another mc ...
2003 Dodge Neon SE 2.0L MIL Lamp on VIN: 1B3ES26C43
hello all , i have my personal car here , this is a 03 dodge neon se THAT HAS BEEN ENGINE SWAPPED WITH A 2.4L TURBO SRT4 DRIVETRAIN.The car is all back to stock configuration but i am fighting a p0171 bank 1 lean code. In the morning stone cold the stft is c... Trouble codes: P0171
2008 Dodge Ram 3500 ST 6.7L MIL Lamp on VIN: 3D6WG46AX8
Hey all, had this Dodge diesel brought in with a ses light, seting codes for all 6 injectors for incompatidle data. I only listed a few of the codes. If cleared will come back on second drive cycle. this vehcle has had a dead battery issue prior to arriving. A... Trouble codes: P268C, P268D, P268E, P268F
1967 Ford Bronco 4.7L Fuel Guage VIN: U15NLA5730
Hopefully some of you that have been around for awhile will remember this one. The fuel gauge on this Bronco is inop. When I checked my voltage to the gauge it is flashing like a turn signal flasher would. According to the diagram it is feed from the constant ...
1998 Ford Windstar GL 3.8L radiator VIN: 2FMZA5144W
i have a 1998 ford windstar with a 3.8 engine found engine oil in the coolant overflow and in the radiator. Intake manifold lower portion was covered in oil with old original plastic gaskets,replaced with new updated metal gaskets, flushed cooling system twice...
2000 Ford Taurus SE 3.0L alternator VIN: 1FAFP5321Y
Hi everybody. I hope all of you are doing OK. Then I need to ask you for your help. It;s about a 2000 Ford Taurus with 3.0L engine with 12 v. and flex fuel that keeps killing the alternators; In the last 2 months we have put 3 new alternators and 3 new battery...
2002 Ford Taurus SE 3.0L Cooling Systems VIN: 1FAFP53U02
We have this 2002 Taurus in the shop with very low miles. The coolant in this thing is like mud. Customer was told by lube shop it was oil but we can not tell if it oil or not. Does Fords coolant degrade that bad with such low miles? One owner with no work don...
2002 Ford Explorer XLT 4.0L no nocommunication whit airbag,abs,&4x4module VIN: 1FMDU73E92
halo im here loking for some help.I have this ford exploter here and is kicking my ass; Have no commiunication whit the 4x4 module so i check all powers and grounds to the module everything looks god so we get new madule from ford, but i never check air bag co...
2002 Ford Explorer XLT 4.0L Right Bank VIN: 1FMZU73E72
Hi everyone, we've had this vehicle in for a misfire only on start up and at idle. As soon as the RPM's come up the misfire gos away and the vehicle runs great. It will set: P0300, P0301, P0302 and P0303. The vehicle also has a left front timing chain noise. I...
2003 Ford F-150 XL 4.6L Passive Anti-Theft System VIN: 2FTRF18W63
Engine turns over, but won't start. The theft light is flashing fast and the odometer reads ---. Used Snap-on Modis scanner and found no codes in the PATS system. Checked all relays and fuses and were fine. Tried reset instructions for the PATS system using th...
2003 Ford Excursion Limited 6.0L Suspension VIN: 1FMSU43P63
we have a excursion that seems to have mind of its own. you are always correcting the steering wheel. truck wonders /drifts one way or the other. we had put some ball jionts in truck awhile back. after another inspection we decided to install another set off b...
2003 Ford Escape XLT 3.0L radio VIN: 1FMYU93153
this truck came a month ago because the battery was always dead after a night .i try the truck and it goes fine no battery drain after 45 min so at the end of the day i try the truck again and i find that the radio stay on even if you're out of the truck whit ...
2006 Ford E-350 Super Duty 5.4L Instrument Cluster VIN: 1FDSE35L56
Hello all:I have this vehicle that came in 6 months ago with no charging system and istrument cluster not working.Found fuse #14 blown replaced it and gauges started working after testing alternator was bad and replaced it.Since then it has been back 3 times w...
2006 Ford F-250 Super Duty XLT 5.4L Reverse lights VIN: 1FTNF21566
I got a 2006 f 250 4x4 came to the shop with reverse lights on in all gears even in park lights on.First i looked on transmission to find the neutral switch to run some checks but on this model is inside the tranny.I am also getting a code P0446 for the canist...
2000 GMC Savana 3500 5.7L MIL Lamp on VIN: 1GTHG35R2Y
I have lean codes for Bank 1 and Bank 2. Customer says the Van has died on him at times I have checked fuel pressure at filter pump is pushing 90 psi and also checked at regulator and the pressure was a little low at 47 replaced regulator and now pressure is 5... Trouble codes: P0171 (Fuel System Lean), P0174 (Fuel System Lean)
2002 Honda Civic EX 1.7L Stall VIN: 1HGEM22952
Car will start and run every time for 1-2 seconds. Need help from any Honda techs. If I unplug the crank sensor, the car will start and run fine, but the trans will not shift out until it hits the rev limitor. If I plug the crank sensor back up, it starts and ...
2006 Hyundai Tucson GLS 2.7L Parking Light VIN: KM8JN12D96
Hi fellow techs. i have this 06 tucson in here that the parking lights stay on all the time. i can unplug my headlamp switch which according to my wiring diagram grounds the taillamp relay and lights stay on . power for parking lamps are fed from the instr. pa...
1988 Jeep Comanche Pioneer 4.0L No Start VIN: 1JTML65P1J
Hello everyone, thank you for reading this and any advice you might have. This jeep came in for a crank no start after getting to operating temperature. Customer also stated vehcile would run rough and his gas milage had been cut in half after problem started....
2005 Maserati Quattroporte 4.2L Water Pump VIN: ZAMCE39A65
Hey fellow techs, this Maserati was towed in for an overheat condition, as well as massive engine noise. Started vehicle up and found oil pressure warning light is on dash. Oil level is full. From the limited info I have found, I believe the water pump and oil...
2002 Mazda Protege ES 2.0L No Start VIN: JM1BJ22562
Car towed in, cranks-no start, has no spark, When we hook up either a Snap-on Modis, or a Genisys scanner, we get no codes but also when we try to view sensors under live data they all have NA next to them. Any chance that this is anything other than PCM? Are...
2004 Mercedes-Benz SL500 5.0L instrument cluster VIN: WDBSK75F64
I have a 2004 Mercedes 500sl with the red battery warning lamp, and electrical accessories offline message on in the info center on dash on start up. I have tested and replaced both batteries and re-tested charge, all ok. Lamp comes on only on start up, can hi...
2005 Mitsubishi Outlander LS 2.4L srs light VIN: JA4LZ31F65
is there any way to pull srs codes without Mitsu scanner? My Matco srs scanner will not comunicate with this system.
2001 Nissan Pathfinder LE 3.5L p1140 VIN: JN8DR09Y21
Was wondering if the cam phaser can be installed improperly or is it keywayed to the sprocket , i did not want to have to disassemble the engine if i don't have to , cleaned the actuator , swapped sensor and only problem on bank one , koeo both sensors read 0 ...
2002 Nissan Maxima SE 3.5L Poor Idle Quality, MIL Lamp on VIN: JN1DA31D12
Hi again in IATN land. This Maxima is loosing power very intermittently. I have driven the car several miles and the problem has yet to show up. Customer states that the ABS light will come on and off and there is almost no throttle response. Have been over th... Trouble codes: P0507 (Idle to high), P0128 (Coolant temp), P1147 (O2 sensor), P0733 (3rd gear), C1109 (ABS battery voltage low)
2012 Other European double 5.3L No Start VIN: SAJDDALW4C
Hello I am in need of some help from my brothers across the pond. I have my bosses 1990 daimler double six which recently died whilst it was running. I have spark and injector pulse and good fuel pressure. I removed the injectors and cranked the car and had go...
1989 Toyota Land Cruiser 4.0L No Start, Stall, Diesel conversion VIN: JT3FJ62GXK
Diesel motor, starts and dies, runs 2 seconds or so, vacuum line from injection pump to intake is pulling fuel, what i need is help diagnosing and parts help if possible, we work on very few diesels, but customer refuses to take vehicle anywhere else.
1997 Toyota Camry CE 3.0L Hesitation, Misfire, MIL Lamp on VIN: 4T1BF22K3V
Hi all need some help,i have an intermittent bank 1 misfire it seems to only happen when near or at normal operating temp.i have checked the timing and its dead on t belt was replaced about 30k ago and tension was good.i also checked fuel pressure as the car w... Trouble codes: P0300, P0301, P0303, P0305
2003 Toyota 4Runner SR5 4.7L Mechanical VIN: JTEBT14R03
Replaced engine 10 months ago-came back a few months later with flywheel broken-replaced flywheel-now new flywheel is broken-can see no reason EXCEPT this uses 2 spacers-1 is thick and the other is thin-I must assume we installed them wrong as this is not a co...
2002 Volkswagen Jetta GLS 1.8L No Start VIN: 3VWSE69M02
Hi Guys.. Have an 02 Jetta 1.8T with NO SPARK, but has Injector pulse and fuel at rail. Replaced RPM Sensor (crank sensor) because there was a code set and no RPM on tach. Once replaced I have RPM now. Still no spark. Coils have power and ground at all "coil o...
2005 Volkswagen Jetta 2.5 2.5L master cylinder VIN: 3VWPG71K75
i have this vw jetta with a 2.5L the brake pedal feels good when i frist apply the brake, then will fade out. the car stops fine but as you sit at a light the pedal will fade down, but will not let the car move. there are no codes in the abs system. thank you ...
2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.5 2.5L Misfire, MIL Lamp on VIN: 3VWPG71K77
Thanks in advance for help. Car came in with mil on, and intermittent misfire. Since it is a intermittent problem, we decided to swap coils 3 with 2. Tested all injector resistance, all tested same. looked for wiring issues in obvious places. found no problems... Trouble codes: P1643, P0203, P0300, P0303, P0301
2011 Volkswagen Jetta SE 2.5L bag module, and steering angle VIN: 3VWDZ7AJ1B
...when car came in had i had communication with air bag system...my scanner is a verus, now i cant communicate with airbag system in manual or expert mode... (the 2 codes 49446(u0126)no comm with steering angle sender...49489(u0151) no comm with airbag contro...
2001 Volvo S80 T6 2.8L Cvvt VIN: YV1TS90D21
Hello. I have this 2001 Volvo S80 2.8L turbo with a p0014/644a code for the SVVT timing system. Customer states that the tngine has stalled several times on him. I have not been able to reproduce the stall but have experienced a rough surging idle one time. I ...

Fixes & Summaries for All Makes and Models
Fix/Summary Answers
2001 Audi A6 Quattro 4.2L No Start VIN: WAUZL54B81
After talking to identifix and having them tell me to search for a power splice coming from the ignition switch due to not having power of fuse seven. I traced wires and found splice is actually part of fuse block. Then by looking at back of fuse block realize...
2000 BMW X5 4.4i 4.4L no scan VIN: WBAFB3345Y
Thanks everyone for your replies. I was scanning it with the dlc caps ON. I worked on the vehicle multiple times since I posted and was not getting anywhere. Then out of nowhere, all systems where able to be scanned, with any scanner. This has continued fo...
2005 BMW X3 3.0i 3.0L MIL Lamp on VIN: WBXPA93445
1995 Buick LeSabre Limited 3.8L Hvac VIN: 1G4HR52L4S
1994 Chevrolet Lumina Euro 3.1L 1-2 shift VIN: 2G1WN54T5R
decided to just drive it till it fails completely and replace the car
1994 Chevrolet Astro 4.3L No Start VIN: 1GBEL19W6R
Thanks to every one for the help. The main connection at the firewall had melted connections. I repaired those and also disconnected a nonworking remote starter. I also cleaned all the grounds at or near the battery. It starts like a champ now.
2000 Chevrolet Blazer LS 4.3L rear suspension or drivetrain VIN: 1GNDT13W3Y
I replaced the rear calipers, brackets, and pads 3 weeks ago. The noise has not come back. I waited to post the fix to make sure it was fixed. I still dont understand how racking the vehicle would make the noise stop for 4 to 5 days or the noise being most fre...
2002 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 LS 5.3L reverse
Thanks guys, you were right . The valve body bolts were mislocated. Easy fix when you know where to look.
2003 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 5.3L No Start VIN: 1GCEK13T13
First of all, Thanks to all that replied! The Voodoo Gods blessed me with communication to my instrument cluster after letting it sit all weekend with power removed from the vehicle. I have no idea still why communication returned after doing nothing. But a... Trouble codes: U1000.
2004 Chevrolet Venture LT 3.4L MIL Lamp on VIN: 1GNDX13E84
after countless attemps to fix this finaally acted up on a road test, found that it was running out of fuel, fuel trims went to + 23 on acceleration. Trouble codes: P0171.
2004 Chevrolet Classic LS 2.2L No Start VIN: 1G1ND52F14
Fixed it. The consensus of replies said to concentrate on the anti-theft/passlock/sensor area and you kind folks were correct. Customer opted to bypass the system so we installed a resistor between circuits 1835 & 1836 and did the 10 minute relearn of the new ... Trouble codes: B2960 (Security system cylinder data incorrect).
2004 Chevrolet Silverado 2500 HD 6.6L Instrument cluste VIN: 1GCHK23294
Thanks everybody for the input. Another new alternator fixed it. The brown wire at the plug should have 12 volts koeo while unplugged. Plugged in with koeo should have close to 0 volts. The 0 volts is the grounding of the "charge indicator control" to the pcm...
2007 Chevrolet Suburban 1500 LTZ 5.3L Poor Idle Quality, High Idle VIN: 1GNFK16397
Sorry I did not get back to everyone ASAP. On firday we tried all the things listed with no changes to the .65 & .67 readings in the Throttle relearn. I drove it the the dealier, went over it with the Guy and the Tech2. Relearned,No changes. So we falshed th... Trouble codes: P0121 (Throttle switch ckt. performance), P0573 (Cruise brake switch a ckt high).
2007 Chrysler PT Cruiser 2.4L Poor Idle Quality, MIL Lamp on VIN: 3A4FY48B17
The belt was off a tooth The leson here is to use a ruler on all 4 marks across the cam gears the two in the middle will line up in a few different positions but if all four ar straight across then it is good to go !! Thank you to all that replied ! Trouble codes: P0016.
1998 Dodge Grand Caravan ES 3.0L gauges VIN: 2B4GP4431W
We did put in a new bcm which seems to have taken care of the issue. Thanks to everyone for your tips an comments and all the help. Very much appreciated! THANK YOU!!
2003 Dodge Durango SLT 4.7L Engine Head Passanger Side VIN: 1D4HS48N03
thanks to everybody for all replies . good advise mostly but is okay I just sit down and think twice whats going want do with the engine .still not understood why the consumer replace only pass anger head side when overheating the whole engine .but this was t...
2010 Dodge Grand Caravan SXT 4.0L Cuts out, Stall VIN: 2D4RN4DX8A
I would like to thank all of the people that took the time to read and respond to my help request. Matthew and Brendan hit the nail on the head. It was the EGR valve. My client indicated most of the time it would stall in the first two blocks from home after s... Trouble codes: C121C.
1999 Ford Ranger XLT 4.0L Timing Cover VIN: 1FTZR15X8X
Thanks to all who replied. General consensus was the pan does not have to be removed. Your Right..pan does not need to come off. In fact, this was one of the easier covers I've done...piece of cake. Customer was given a worst case and a best case price...He go...
2003 Ford Explorer XLT 4.6L Noise VIN: 1FMZU73W73
Well we found metal in the oil so we are not sure where the customer wants to go next. Thank you for your help.
2007 Ford Focus S 2.0L air distribution VIN: 1FAHP37N27
Found broken 'mode cable' and replaced. All air positions now working. Part was approximately $45.
2007 Ford Fusion SEL 3.0L Pcm VIN: 3FAHP08107
Ok. Customer opted for new PCM. Tried a used on just to see and it will not work unless programed like most of you said. VIN must match. Thank you for all of your help.
2009 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor 4.6L Stall VIN: 2FAHP71V79
We replaced the MAF sensor, PNDL switch and reflashed the computer. Also inspected all wiring, power and grounds. Inspected engine mounts and bushings. We are still having the same problem, very intermintant on wet days only. Trouble codes: P061B.
2006 GMC Envoy SLT 4.2L MIL Lamp on, Hard starting VIN: 1GKDT13S06
Finally confident that we have a fix. Sine it was very intermittant, when it finnally returned replaced pcm and cust says today 2 full weeks later, that isue has not returned. Thanks to all for your help. Trouble codes: P0601.
2000 Honda Accord SE 2.3L Excessive Emissions, MIL Lamp on VIN: 1HGCG6699Y
thanks guys sorry for late response. Snap test and crank test Temp in/out ( in 320/ out 320 ) Nothing left in the CAT. Thanks Trouble codes: P0420 (cat effictioncy).
2002 Hyundai Elantra GLS 2.0L Suspension VIN: KMHDN45D82
Thank you all for your help full replies. Thank God the customer was very understanding after it was explained in full. She actually had this happen under warrenty and they replaced one under warrenty so she understood. Replaced all four at a real discount jus...
2002 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo 4.0L MIL Lamp on VIN: 1J4GW48S82
Ripped the wiring harness open, no damage/green death found. Contacted our local high end scan tool guru, knows nothing about cars, but nobody around here knows more about scan tools. The conlusion from your replies was this is a bad PCM as the code sets wi... Trouble codes: P0135 (O2 B1S1 heater circuit), P0155 (O2 B2S1 heater circuit).
2006 Mazda 3 S 2.3L in limp VIN: JM1BK32456
Hi everyone, This car is not fixed, I will post the fix when I get it done but I was out of time on the request. Thanks for reading and the repleys that we got back.
2000 Toyota Corolla VE 1.8L MIL Lamp on VIN: 2T1BR12E2Y
2001 Toyota RAV4 2.0L no start VIN: JTEHH20V01
I checked power and grounds to the PCM. I scoped crank and cam sensor by backprobing wires at PCM. I unplugged PCM connectors and jumped IGT terminals to coils and they fired. I jumped the injector terminals and they clicked. I replaced the PCM with a rebu...
2003 Volkswagen Passat GLS 1.8L No Start, MIL Lamp on VIN: WVWPD63B13
Itís finally fixed and down the road. Unfortunately I still donít know whether it can be done by a locksmith, but Iím pretty sure it can no longer be done with Vag-com as some suggested. There is a VW TSB indicating that and at the end of this post is a statem...
2004 Volkswagen Beetle GL 2.0L thermostat VIN: 3VWBK21C94
Well, I have fixed this @ some level. The new thermostat improves things greatly; it flows coolant normally, fans cycle, no puking... but customer is still adding about a cup a week to coolant bottle and it's not leaking externally. This is the only symptom ...
2005 Volkswagen Passat GLS 2.0L Oil Pressure VIN: WVWAE63B25
Oil pressure is good. Thanks for the help. Threaded and plugged hole as suggested and pressure is good now.
2008 Volkswagen Eos lux 2.0L Windshield Washer Pump VIN: WVWFA71FX8
after replacing a defective load reduction relay. I still didn't have pump. checked all grounds to module. then reinstall O.E Module which finally fixed. so I had combo prob. faulty/wrong replacement module (not my Diag) the original issue was a faulty load re...
2004 Volvo xc90 2401CC abs module
This one is fixed. Terry and Douglas were fairly close to the mark. I didnt have a wiring diagram for this model. I had a 2002 S80 wiring diagram's electrical distribution overview looked similar. I traced the feed to fuses 11c/16 and 17. They were fed from re...
Prev (Also Available: All, Asian, Chrysler, European, Ford, GM.) Next